Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies: Alam-e-Niswan <p>Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan (PJWS) is an academic bi-annual journal of the Pakistan Association for Women’s Studies (PAWS). PJWS was first published in 1994. As a refereed international interdisciplinary, PJWS aims at disseminating and sharing women’s studies research and feminist scholarship globally. The Journal publishes articles relating to scholarship in the field of Women’s Studies and feminist knowledge. The editorial board welcomes a variety of contributions that focus on women’s experience, gender issues, and feminist theory and consciousness. We publish academic/creative writing, and reports from the activists, that are critical, scholarly, and offer fresh perspectives on issues faced by civil society.</p> <p>The second part of our name, i.e., Alam-e-Niswan (an Arabic-Farsi phrase) means women’s world and shows our commitment to remain constantly engaged in dialogue with women globally and not to remain restricted either by political disputes or by geographical boundaries. Over the years, the Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies has not only remained committed to its goal of generating and disseminating interdisciplinary scholarship but it has also participated in global conversations and has made alliances with similar journals world-wide.</p> en-US (Dr. Tahera Aftab) (EScience Press) Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 NURTURING FATHER AND DAUGHTER RELATIONSHIPS AND FAMILY WELL-BEING: A COMMUNITY-BASED TRANSFORMATIVE INITIATIVE <p>Research supports that the positive involvement of fathers in caregiving activities cultivates family cohesion and fosters the emotional well-being of fathers and their families. However, there are limited community-based resources that support and celebrate the development of nurturing fatherhood and focus on strengthening father-daughter relationships. In collaboration with diverse communities in Calgary, Canada, a local network launched a community-based and culturally relevant program, Honouring Fathers and Daughters, to promote positive fatherhood roles and to celebrate both nurturing fatherhood practices and the significance of father-daughter relationships. Participants (N=65), from ethnically and socioeconomically diverse backgrounds, including 19 fathers, 17 mothers, and 29 children, joined the program. A community-based research approach (CBR) was employed to gather participant responses through feedback forms. Through qualitative analysis, responses indicated three key themes: valuing and appreciating father-daughter relationships, the need for social and cultural spaces for the engagement and transformation of fathers, and the importance of providing opportunities for fathers to learn new strategies for parenting and bonding with their daughters. This article highlights the importance of community-based engagement programs for nurturing father-daughter relationships and provides insights for communities.</p> Aamir Jamal, Liza Lorenzetti, Omer Jamal, Sarah Thomas, Abbas Mancey Copyright (c) 2022 Aamir Jamal Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DISCOURSE, KNOWLEDGE AND (HETERO)PATRIARCHY: A CASE STUDY OF THE HONOUR KILLING OF QANDEEL BALOCH <p>This study employs a Feminist Epistemic Discourse analysis of the Facebook comments posted by social media users in Pakistan in response to the honour killing of a social media celebrity, Qandeel Baloch. The study focuses on misogynist and sexist knowledge and practices of knowledge dissemination, where information is condensed and interpersonally charged through (de)legitimation strategies which embody hegemonised heteropatriarchal ideologies and values. To represent and synthesise people’s misogynist and sexist knowledge, and to justify the honour killing of Baloch, the social media users make use of selective knowledge constructed from the combinations of various popular discourses, supported by the references to selected religious scripture. This study is a part of a more detailed study on Gendered Epistemic Discourse Analysis (GEDA) which aims to focus on the relationship between discourse, knowledge and heteropatriarchy. Such studies will provide deeper insights into socio-cultural contexts where honour killing is practiced, and facilitate further development of feminist approaches to discourse, knowledge and socio-cultural context.</p> Snobra Rizwan Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CHALLENGING STEREOTYPES ABOUT GENDERED ROLES IN TED TALKS <p>This study is designed to explicate how the paradigmatic and syntagmatic relationship of language is the embodiment of gender differences. The present research deals with data taken from TEDx videos of both male and female speakers to find out how the speech varies between both sexes; what lexical choices and grammatical patterns are used by the speakers to make their speech stand out. The data, after being transcribed according to the Jeffersonian system of transcription, are analysed in the light of multiple parameters of Lakoff’s Deficit Model (1975). The paper mainly focuses on how men and women exploit various linguistic choices in terms of topics, empty adjectives, hedges, intensives, super-polite adjectives, telling jokes and intonation in their talks. The results implicate that both men and women have reshaped their linguistic choices over time and, as opposed to Lakoff’s findings, women’s talk is getting subject-oriented, shaded with lesser use of intensifiers, empty adjectives and intonations; whereas men are using these parameters with conviction. This represents a negation of internalised stereotypes by both sexes.</p> Mussarat Azher, Attiqa Riaz, Abdul Ghaffar Ikram Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 50 YEARS OF ENGENDERING WOMEN IN BANGLADESH’S POLITICS: PROGRESS OR PARADOX? <p>The paper seeks to evaluate women’s political participation at the 50th anniversary of Bangladesh which emerged in 1971 as an independent country. The country has recorded notable development indicators in these years. Among such indicators, the example of two women holding the topmost positions in politics has often resulted in a misconstrued notion, implying that all women have a fair and just role in the country’s politics. This study argues that stark societal contradictions seriously threaten women’s political roles, participation and empowerment at all stages, as members of political parties, as elected representatives of the people and more significantly as voters. The research attempts to address the following questions: What are the roadblocks hindering women’s political engagement at all the above-mentioned stages? What measures has the government adopted for increasing women’s low representation in politics? What forward-looking strategies have been employed for enhancing women’s participation in public life? The findings show that a lot has yet to be achieved because women’s subordinated position in politics may be a result of low political institutionalisation and patriarchy, both in public and private spheres.</p> Sufia Khanom, Ishtiaque Selim Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 FEAR OF SMALL NUMBERS: RE-VISIONING HISTORY IN BROKEN VERSES <p>This paper explores how Kamila Shamsie’s <em>Broken Verses</em> challenges the official version of the Pakistani historical narrative on the Zia regime by presenting counter-histories that mainly draw on subjective memories to highlight the marginalised voices which are left out of the dominant historical narratives. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s concept of counter-histories, this study revives the memories of multiple experiences of national history during General Zia’s regime that highlight the forgotten voices and the silent exclusions. It also deploys Appadurai’s concept of fear of minorities to investigate the culture of hate promoted by Zia’s regime to justify his policy of Islamisation in every field of national life. Zia’s Hudood Ordinances denied the freedom to Pakistani women and religious minorities, as both became the direct target of the regressive religious policies of his regime. Kamila Shamsie in her novel, <em>Broken Verses</em>, exposes fissures and gaps prevalent in the official national narratives by providing a counter version of history that is both inclusive and pluralistic. Moreover, this paper explores the way the novel tries to unearth the lost and unheard voices that are buried under the official version of history and documents those perspectives on nationalism that not only embrace gaps, chaos, and discontinuity but also linguistic and psychic fragmentation.</p> Khamsa Qasim, Munazza Yaqoob Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 GENDER-SENSITIVE PUBLIC POLICY INITIATIVES: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE PUNJAB WOMEN EMPOWERMENT PACKAGE (PWEP) 2012–2016 <p>One of the several contradictions that rule women’s lives in Pakistan since its inception in 1947 is endorsing of their empowerment and the restoration of their misappropriated rights by successive governments, political parties and non-government organisations. The sad state of women’s lives in present times, however, indicates a consistent lack of effort and willpower in taking effective measures in this direction. One of the recent steps in this direction is the Punjab Women Empowerment Package launched by the province’s government in 2012, 2014 and 2016 to safeguard women’s rights and economic empowerment. This paper aims at exploring the gender sensitivity of the public policy towards women with a special focus on the PWEP by following the analytical framework used by the Centre for International Development Issues, University of Nijmegen (CIDIN). The parameters of the approach cover the structural and action-oriented aspects based on three dimensions: (i) access to resources, information, power and networks; (ii) rights, rules and responsibilities; and (iii) identity, culture and sense of belonging. The outcomes of this study will help foresee the effects of these packages in the long run for the women of Punjab.</p> Sadia Jabeen, Sonia Omer, Muhammad Zaheer Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 DOWRY, FEMALE INHERITANCE SHARE AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE: A CASE STUDY OF VILLAGE MAINGAN, DISTRICT CHAKWAL <p>A major contradiction that controls and permeates all aspects of women’s lives in Pakistan and other regions of South Asia is the giving of dowry and wrongfully depriving them of their share in family inheritance. Viewed as a marker of the social status, honour and power of the male head of the household, dowry is indeed a patriarchal ploy to subjugate women and keep them under male tutelage. This paper investigates social perceptions in general and females’ perceptions in particular regarding the presence of dowry and suppression of inheritance rights, despite having shariah injunctions and constitutional safeguards to protect their right to have a share in family property and assets. With the help of in-depth interviews of twenty women of Maingan, a village in Punjab’s District Chakwal, and conversations with key informants and influential landholders of the locality, while exploring dowry’s correlation with women’s marital life and their social and economic, the study also investigates whether relinquishing their right to inheritance is simply compliance of male authority by a subservient female or tactful bargaining with patriarchy. The findings reveal that despite all efforts at gender sensitisation and female awareness, women remain inadequately informed about their rights.</p> Nasra Batool Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 PERFECTIONISM, SOCIAL COMPARISON AND HAPPINESS IN YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS <p>This paper aims to assess the relationship between perfectionism, social comparison, and happiness in young entrepreneurs. This correlational study used a purposive sample of 90 entrepreneurs (70 women; 20 men; <em>M</em>age=25.44 years; <em>SD</em>=6.47) from different cities in Pakistan via an online survey. It was hypothesised that there is likely to be a significant relationship between perfectionism, social comparison, and happiness in young entrepreneurs. It was also hypothesised that perfectionism and social comparison are likely to predict happiness in young entrepreneurs. A biodata form was used to gather demographic information. The measures included the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale to measure overall perfectionism, Social Comparison Scale to assess the self-perceptions during social comparison, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire to measure personal happiness. The descriptive statistics were computed for demographic variables. Further, reliability analysis was employed to determine the questionnaire’s psychometric properties including mean, standard deviation, and Cronbach alpha. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Regression Analysis were computed. The results indicated perfectionism to be negatively correlated with happiness and social comparison was positively related to happiness. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that social comparison is more likely to predict happiness in young entrepreneurs. The present study can be helpful for not only young entrepreneurs but also for counsellors, educational institutes, and workplaces to provide awareness about the influential relationship between the three phenomena as it may have far-reaching implications on the progress of entrepreneurship in Pakistan.</p> Bahjat Noor, Ayesha Aziz Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CONTRIBUTION OF PAKISTANI FEMALE RESEARCHERS IN ICT: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS <p>This paper analyses the contribution of Pakistani female researchers in the field of ICT using the bibliometric analysis method. It helps to observe a female researcher’s productivity and assists in identifying problems, such as the need to empower female researchers in ICT. No such work has been conducted yet on gender-based bibliometric analysis in Pakistan. In this paper, bibliometric data of 300 female researchers were extracted from Google Scholar profiles. With the help of this study, the most prestigious female researcher in the field of ICT from Pakistan was analysed based on the h-index. Also, the most active ICT institute in terms of female research productivity (the number of publications) was observed. Furthermore, the annual growth rate of 15 years (2006–2021) of female-led research is calculated and is&nbsp; analysed that the maximum annual growth rate of research productivity (140.965) was in 2010. Additionally, the active contribution of female researchers in most trending research areas of ICT was found by generating the co-occurrence network diagram using 3,640 research paper titles. According to the co-occurrence network diagram, the most popular research areas are image classification and prediction, Internet of Things (IoT), wireless sensor network and smart grid, fuzzy logic and deep learning.</p> Sapna Kumari, Sania Bhatti, Mohsin Ali Memon, Arsha Kumari, Aqsa Umar Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 22 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000